Tripura is remarkable in that only one major road, the National Highway 44 (NH-44), connects it to the rest of India. The national highway starts at Sabroom in southern Tripura, goes north to the capital Agartala, turns east and then north-east to enter the state of Assam. Locally known as Assam Road, the NH-44 is often called the lifeline of Tripura. However, the highway is single lane and of poor quality; often landslides, rains or other disruptions on the highway cut off the state from its neighbours.Another National Highway, NH 44A, connects the town Manu in South Tripura district with Aizawl, Mizoram.
The Tripura Road Transport Corporation is the government agency overlooking public transport on road. A hilly and land-locked state, Tripura is dependent mostly on roads for transport. The total length of roads in the state is 16,931 km (10,520 mi) of which national highways constitute 448 km (278 mi) and state highways 689 km (428 mi), as of 2009–10.
Rail transport was absent in the state until 2008–09 when a rail connection was established between the capital Agartala and Lumding junction in Assam. This is a meter gauge rail track connecting to the usual Indian gauge at Lumding. The major railways stations in this line are in Agartala, Dharmanagar, and Kumarghat. As of 2009–10, the total length of railway tracks in the state is 153 kilometres (95 mi). Extension of railway line from Agartala to the southernmost town of Sabroom is in progress, as of 2012. Agartala Airport, which has flights to Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Guwahati, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, and Silchar, is the main airport of the state. The Agartala–Kolkata and Agartala–Guwahati flights are particularly important for rapid connectivity with the rest of India. Passenger helicopter services are available between the capital and major towns (Kailashahar, Dharmanagar) as well as to more remote areas such as Kanchanpur and Gandacherra. Residents in rural areas frequently use waterways as a mode of transport.